Part of the American History and Genealogy Project

Events of 1780 - Indian Warfare Begins

For fourteen years after the founding of the Cumberland settlement the lives of the pioneers were in daily peril. Looking back over that eventful period from a distance of more than a century we wonder that a single individual escaped such a terrible onslaught of savage cruelty. In the language of Judge Haywood, it was indeed "a period of danger and hazard; of daring adventure and dangerous exposure." When the articles of agreement were adopted the settlers began in peace to plant their fields and plow their corn. But the Indians deeply resented this sudden advent of so large a number of the whites into their hunting grounds. By way of adding fuel to the flame, the British on the North and the Spaniards on the south were now busily, but secretly engaged in urging the savages to open hostilities against the defenseless outposts on the western frontier. The latter now by seeming systematic effort began to pick off the stragglers from the various stations.

One morning during the month of May a hunter by the name of Keywood came running into the fort at the Bluff and reported that John Milliken had been killed on Richland Creek, five or six miles away. The two men were journeying toward the settlement and had stopped at the creek for a drink. While they stooped down they were fired upon by a band of Indians hidden on the bank and Milliken fell dead. Keywood had escaped uninjured and made his way alone to the settlement to bear the news of the tragic death of his comrade.

A few days later Joseph Hay was alone down on the Lick Branch between the Bluff and Freeland's Station, when a skulking party of savages who were hiding in the cane shot and scalped him. They then beat a hasty retreat, carrying away with them his gun, hunting knife, shot pouch and powder horn. His body was buried by the settlers in the open ground on a point of land east of Sulphur Spring.

Soon thereafter a man named Bernard was at work on his clearing near what is now Beuna Vista Springs. So busily engaged was he with his work that he did not hear the stealthy footfalls of the approaching savages. Creeping up to within easy range the latter shot him dead in his tracks, after which they cut off the head of their victim and carried it away in triumph.

In their retreat they encountered nearby three young men; two brothers named Dunham, and the third, a son of John Milliken whose death is mentioned above as having occurred only a short time before. The Dunhams escaped to Freeland's Station, but young Milliken was killed and his head likewise cut off and carried away by the enemy. In the month of June two settlers by the names of Goin and Kennedy were clearing land between Mansker's and Eaton's Stations. A party of Indians stole up behind some brush heaps the men were making and when the latter came near they were fired upon and killed. The savages then rushed out, tore off the scalps of their victims and escaped unharmed into the surrounding forest. During the months following a number of the settlers were killed within what are now the city limits of Nashville. D. Larimer was shot, scalped and beheaded near Freeland's Station. Isaac Lefeore met a like fate on the west bank of the river near the end of the Louisville & Nashville railroad bridge. Soloman Murry, Soloman Phillips, and Robert Aspey were fired upon while at work near where the Fogg High School building now stands. Murry and Aspey were killed, the savages taking away the scalp of the former. Phillips was wounded, but escaped to the fort at the Bluff, where he died a few days later. Benjamin Renfroe, John Maxwell and John Kennedy were fishing on the river bank near the mouth of Sulphur Spring Branch. Indians crept up behind them and made an attack. The men fought bravely, but were overpowered and made prisoners. Renfroe was tomahawked and scalped, but the lives of Kennedy and Maxwell were spared.

Philip Catron journeyed from Freeland's Station to the Bluff. The buffalo path along which he passed ran through a thick cluster of undergrowth near the present crossing of Cedar and Cherry Streets. While in the midst of this thicket he was shot from ambush. Holding on to his horse he rode to the station, where he received such medical attention as could be given him. Though severely wounded he finally recovered.

John Caffrey and Daniel Williams, two occupants of the Bluff fort, went for a row up the river. On returning they had made fast their canoe and were coming up the bank near the foot of Church Street when the Indians opened fire, wounding them in the legs. Hearing the report of the rifles John Raines and several companions who were in the fort nearby rushed out and chased the savages, eight or ten in number, as far as the Sulphur Spring. The latter were fleet of foot and made their escape. Late in the month of August Jonathan Jennings, who with his family barely escaped death in the voyage over, was killed near the river bank at a point opposite Island No. 1, above Nashville. He was at that time building a cabin on the tract of land upon which he had recently made entry. Not content with taking his life, the Indians, who were a roving band of Delawares chopped his body into pieces with their tomahawks and scattered the fragments over the surrounding ground.

James Mayfield and a man named Porter were murdered in plain view of their comrades over in Edgefield near Eaton's Station. The men in the fort caught up their rifles and gave chase, but the enemy made good their escape.

Col. Richard Henderson's body servant and Negro cook, Jim, was killed by a party of Indians near Clover Bottom. His master had begun the erection of a camp at that place, a short way above that occupied by Colonel Donelson, but at that time was away on a visit to forts in Kentucky. Jim and a young white man, a chain carrier in Henderson's surveying party, were about to begin a journey down the river by canoe from the camp to the Bluff. The savages were in hiding in the thick cane on the bank and fired upon them with the above result. The white man, Jim's companion, made his escape. One of the emigrants, Ned Carvin by name, had made an entry on land four miles east of Nashville. He built thereon a cabin in which he lived with his family. One day while hoeing in his garden beside the house he was shot by the Indians from a neighboring thicket and instantly killed. His wife and two small children escaped by a door on the opposite side of the cabin and hid in the cane nearby.

For some unknown reason they were unmolested, and after remaining in hiding all night in the woods made their way in safety next morning to Eaton's Station. Here they were kindly comforted and provided for by the settlers.

A few days thereafter John Shockley and Jesse Balestine were killed while hunting in the woods not far from Carvin's cabin.

Jacob and Frederick Stump, two Dutchmen, had selected land and built a cabin on White's Creek, three miles north of Eaton's Station. Pursuant to custom one of them usually stood on guard while the other worked in the clearing, but on a certain occasion this precaution was neglected. While both were busily engaged some Indians crept up behind a clump of trees at the edge of the field and fired at them, killing Jacob. His brother seeing that it would be folly to stand his ground started on a run toward Eaton's, the nearest place of refuge, closely pursued by the enemy. Uphill and down, over ledges of rock, through cane brakes and cedar thickets, the race was one of life and death. After a mile or two the pursuing savages got near enough to hurl a tomahawk at Stump's head with such force as to land it twenty or thirty feet beyond. There the race ended, the supposition being that the Indians stopped to search for the lost hatchet. They probably thought more of the latter than of the prospect of capturing Stump's scalp, especially so in consideration of the rate of speed Stump was making just at that particular time.

This same band of marauders went on up the river to Bledsoe's Station and there killed and scalped two persons: William Johnson and Daniel Mungle. Then after shooting all the cattle they could find about the fort and setting fire to some out houses and fencing they pursued their journey up the river toward Flartsville. On the way they met Thomas Sharp Spencer returning alone from a hunting trip and leading two horses ladened with bear meat and pelts. The Indians fired at Spencer, slightly wounding him.

Finding himself badly outnumbered Spencer ''stood not on the order of his going" but very promptly dismounted and ''went at once," leaving the horses and cargo to the enemy. He ran through the woods and escaped into Bledsoe's fort. Tradition tells us that when safely inside the station he made but little complaint because of his wound, but grieved long and loud on account of the loss of the horses and especially the bear meat, of which he was exceedingly fond.

Other hunters had been with Spencer on this expedition, but had left him before the Indians were encountered.

Some of the forts were abandoned before the end of 1780 because of their apparent inability to defend themselves against attacks of which they were in constant danger. In the latter part of May, John Raines had moved his family from his station in Waverly Place to the Bluff fort, and thence later into Kentucky.

Massacre at Renfroe's Station

During the month of July Renfroe's Station at the mouth of Red River was attacked by a combined force of Choctaws and Chickasaws. In this onslaught Nathan Turpin and another man whose name is now unknown were slain and scalped. The fort was thereupon abandoned. The Turpin family were relatives of the Freeland's, and, therefore, would go to Freeland's Station, while Johns and some of the others would stop on the East side of the river at Eaton's. They began their journey at once, taking with them only a few necessary articles. The remainder of their household goods and personal effects were hidden as securely as possible about the deserted fort. After a day of hard travel they camped by the roadside about dusk. After they had eaten supper some of the party began to express regret at their hasty flight and decided to return that night to the fort and bring away more of their property. Beginning the return journey at once, they reached the deserted fort in the early hours of the morning, and by daylight had gathered up all they could carry away. They then started the second time toward Eaton's and the Bluff. That evening they went into camp in what is now Cheatham County, two miles north of Sycamore Creek.

During the night they were surprised by a party of Indians who fell upon them with sudden and destructive fire. The settlers scattered and fled through the darkness in every direction, but they were pursued and all save one, a Mrs. Jones, perished by the tomahawk in the hands of an unrelenting foe. Men, women and children, the latter detected by their crying, were hunted down and chopped to death with wanton cruelty. About twenty persons were killed in this terrible massacre. Among the number were Joseph Renfroe, and Mr. Johns together with his entire family, consisting of twelve persons. Mrs. Jones, who escaped, was rescued next day and brought in safety to Eaton's Station by Henry Ramsey, a brave Indian fighter and worthy pioneer. Those of the company who had not turned back but had continued their journey, arrived at their destination in safety. When news of the above disaster reached Eaton's and the Bluff a rescuing party from each went at once to the scene of the massacre and there gave aid to the mortally wounded, and buried the dead. By the light of the morning they found that the Indians, probably the same band which had made the assault on Renfroe's Station, had captured and carried away all the horses and much of the plunder. Such of the latter as remained they had broken and scattered over the ground.

At length the Indians directed their attention to Mansker's Station and killed Patrick Quigley, John Stuckley, James Lumsley and Betsy Kennedy. This station was afterwards abandoned for a time as will be later recorded. Late in the summer a party of hunters were spending the night in a cabin at Asher's Station, in Sumner County. The Indians who by some unknown means had learned of their presence, surrounded the cabin during the night and at daybreak made an attack by poking their guns through the cracks and firing at the sleeping whites. They killed a man named Payne and wounded another by the name of Phillips. After scalping Payne and capturing all the horses about the station they started on toward Bledsoe's, riding single file in the buffalo path which led in that direction. Suddenly they found themselves face to face with a company of settlers composed of Alex. Buchanan, William Ellis, James Manifee, Alex. Thompson and others, who were returning to the Bluff from a hunting expedition in Trousdale County. Buchanan, who was riding at the head of his party, fired and killed the first Indian and wounded the second. Seeing their leader slain, the remaining savages sought safety in flight, leaving to the whites the captured horses.

After this the settlers at Asher's became so much alarmed that they broke up the station and went to Mansker's. A short time there after Col. Robertson, Alex. Buchanan, John Brock, William Mann and fourteen others equally as true and tried, chased a band of Indians from Freeland's Station, a distance of forty miles, to Gordan's Ferry, on Duck River. Here they came upon the savages, killed several of their number and captured a large amount of stolen plunder. This was the first military expedition conducted by Col. Robertson under the new local government.

Later in the fall another party of Indians approached the Bluff Station in the night, stole a number of horses, loaded them with such goods and plunder as they could lay hands on and made their escape. The next morning Capt. James Leiper, with a company of fifteen, pursued and overtook them on Harpeth River. When the savages heard the approach of the whites they made every effort to escape, but their horses which were heavily loaded with the plunder stolen from the settlement, could make but little headway through the entangled undergrowth. At the first fire from Leiper's party the Indians fled, leaving the horses and plunder to their pursuers.

The settlers were now in great need of salt for use in seasoning the fresh meat upon which they were obliged to depend almost solely for food. Their only way of securing this necessity of life was by evaporation from the waters of sulphur springs.

The first attempt at salt making was at Mansker's Lick. Having failed there, a party consisting of William Neely, his daughter, a young lady about sixteen years old, and several men, went from that station to Neely's Lick, afterwards known as Neely's Bend, up the river from the Bluff. Here they had established a camp and were meeting with some success. Neely daily scoured the woods for game and thus kept the company supplied with food, while the young lady did the cooking. The kilns at which the salt was made were located some distance from the camp, and the workmen suspecting no danger, went off each day, leaving the father and daughter alone about the camp. One evening about sunset Neely returned from a successful hunt, bringing with him a fine buck which had been killed a few miles away. Being much fatigued he lay down by the camp fire to rest while his daughter skinned the deer and prepared the venison for supper, singing as she passed back and forth from the tent to the oven, some distance away. Suddenly a rifle barrel gleamed in the fading sunlight from behind a neighboring tree and a shot broke the stillness of the forest. Neely, raising himself halfway up on his elbow, uttered a groan and fell back dead. The savages now rushed out from their hiding places, seized the girl tied her hands behind her and gathering up her father's gun and powder horn dragged her away captive, a big Indian holding her on either side. Thus they forced her to run between them until far into the night, when the party reached a Creek camp many miles south of Nashville. Here they rested for a while, but the next morning resumed their flight, going on into the interior of the Creek nation.

Neely's companions returning to camp shortly after dark and finding him dead and his daughter missing, hastened to carry the sad tidings to the wife and mother at Mansker's, which place they reached about daylight. The occupants of the fort at once organized a party to pursue the murderers and rescue the girl, After following the trail for fifteen or twenty miles, acting on the advice of Kasper Mansker, their leader, they quit the chase lest the captors, seeing themselves pursued, might kill their prisoner. The details of Miss Neely's final rescue have not been preserved. However, it is known to historians that after remaining in captivity among the Creeks for several years, her release was secured and she was allowed to return to her friends. Later she married a prominent settler at one of the Kentucky stations, living there-after a happy life.

As previously related, Col. Donelson early in May had fixed his station at Clover Bottom, near the mouth of Stone's River. It was already late in the season, therefore he did not take time to build a fort, but constructed a number of cabins with open fronts, known in those days as "half camps," into which he moved his own family and other members of his party. Besides his wife and children. Col. Donelson had with him a number of slaves and dependents. He therefore felt the necessity of pitching his crop at once that he might be able to provide them with food during the winter. He planted corn in an open field on the south side of Stones River, and then crossing over made a small clearing and planted a patch of cotton on the north shore. These crops came up promptly, thrived and gave promise of a fine yield. But in the month of July heavy rains fell throughout the Cumberland Valley, causing the river to overflow the bottoms on either side. Being now under water, it was supposed that the crops in the Clover Bottom were destroyed. This, together with the daily increasing danger of Indian attacks, caused the station to be abandoned, the settlers going by boat up the Cumberland to Edgefield Junction, and thence across the country to Mansker's Station, where they were received and where they took up a second residence.

In the fall Col. Donelson learned that the crops at Clover Bottom had not been destroyed, as he had supposed, but upon the receding of the water they had matured and now awaited the harvest. Generously wishing to divide with the settlers at the Bluff, the latter having suffered loss by reason of the summer floods, he proposed to them that a boat party from that place should meet a like company from Mansker's at the Clover Bottom on a given date for the purpose of gathering the corn and cotton. This offer was readily accepted and accordingly about November I the two parties met at the place mentioned. The company which came from the Bluff was under command of Capt. Abel Gower, and beside the latter consisted of Abel Gower, Jr., John Randolph Robertson, a relative of Col. James Robertson; William Cartwright and several others, to the number of ten or twelve. Col. Donelson himself was not present, but sent his company under the direction of his son, Capt. John Donelson, Jr., then a young man twenty-six years of age. With him were Hugh Rogan, Robert Cartwright and several other white men, together with a number of the Donelson slaves. Among the latter was Somerset, Col. Donelson's faithful body servant.

This party had brought with them a horse to use in sledding the corn to the boats and also for the purpose of towing the latter down Stones River to the Cumberland after they were loaded.

On their arrival the boats were tied to the bank near where the turnpike bridge now spans the stream and all hands began the harvest, packing the corn in baskets and sacks, which were in turn hauled on a sled to the boats.

They were thus engaged for three or four days, during which time they saw nothing of the enemy. However, they felt some uneasiness because of the constant barking of the dogs at night, a circumstance which to the settlers indicated that Indians were skulking about. During the last night of their stay the dogs were much disturbed, rushing as if mad from place to place about the camp. By daylight next morning the hands were in the field gathering and loading the rest of the corn and making ready in all haste for a speedy departure.

Clover Bottom Defeat

Captain Donelson and his companions got their boat loaded first, and, pushing it across to the northern shore, began gathering the cotton, of which there was only a small amount, heaping the bolls on the corn in the boat. It was expected that they would be joined directly by the party 'from the Bluff, and that thus working together, the task would soon be complete.

A little later however. Captain Donelson was much surprised to see the latter rowing on down the river toward home. He hailed them and asked if they were not coming over. Captain Gower replied in the negative, saying that it was growing late and they must reach the Bluff before night, at the same time expressing the behalf that there was no danger. Donelson began a vigorous protest against their going, but while he yet spoke a horde of Indians, several hundred strong, opened a terrific fire upon the men in Gower's boat. The savages had been gradually gathering and were now ambushed in the cane along the south bank and near to the corn-ladened craft, which by this time had drifted into a narrow channel on that side. At the first fire several of the men jumped from the boat and waded through the shallow water to the shore, where they were hotly pursued by the foe. Captain Gower, his son, and Robertson were killed and their bodies lost in the river. Others were slain and fell on the corn in the boat. Of the party that reached the shore only three, a white man and two Negroes, escaped death.

The white man and one of the Negroes wandered through the woods without food for nearly two days, finally reaching the Bluff. The other survivor, a free Negro by the name of Jack Cavil, was wounded, captured and carried a prisoner to one of the Chickamauga towns near Chattanooga. He afterwards became notorious as a member of a thieving band of Indian marauders who, making headquarters in that region, wrought great havoc on the settlements west of the mountains. The village of Nickajack, or "Nigger jack's Town," which was afterwards founded, took its name from this captive.

Gower's boat, containing the bodies of three of the slain, the corn and two or three dogs, floated unmolested down to the Bluff, where it was sighted during the forenoon of the day following the slaughter. It was brought to shore near the foot of what is now Broad Street.

After assaulting Captain Gower and his men, the Indians started on a run up the river to a point on the shore opposite Donelson's boat, but here they found the water too deep to ford.

Donelson and several of his companions seeing the attack upon the other party, had rushed down to their own boat for their rifles and shot-bags. Returning they found that the other members of their party, alarmed by the roar of guns and yells of the enemy, had fled for safety into the cane. Pausing long enough to fire a volley across the river at the savages, they now attempted to join their comrades. With much difficulty all were collected and a council held. It was decided that they should abandon the boat and make their way through the woods east of the river to a point opposite Edgefield Junction, when an effort would be made to cross over and escape to Mansker's. Mr. Cartwright, being old and infirm, was placed on the horse which had been brought from the station. All that day they journeyed each man traveling alone lest any two or more together should make a trail which might be found and followed by the enemy. At dusk they were called in by a signal and huddled together for the night in the leaf-covered top of a large hickory tree which had fallen to the ground. The weather was damp and they suffered much from cold, but dared not build a fire lest they might be discovered. Next morning they tried to construct a raft on which to cross the river, but had neither tools nor suitable material out of which to make such a craft. Gathering sticks and poles such as were found lying about, they fastened them together with grape vines and on this made several attempts to go over, but each time the current drove them back. Finally this rude conveyance was abandoned and allowed to float away.

At last Somerset volunteered to swim over on the horse and ride to Mansker's for help. This he did in safety, thus carrying to the Stationer's their first news of the disaster. Several men from the station, bringing with them a supply of tools, returned with Somerset. By these a strong raft was built on which the party was brought over and restored to their friends.

In these times of danger there was but little communication between the forts. Therefore for some days after the events above related it was supposed by the settlers at the Bluff that the Donelson party had been either killed or captured. The shocking details of this disaster, which is known in history as the ''Clover Bottom Defeat," caused great sorrow among all the people of the Cumberland Settlement. The Indians who were responsible for this attack were not armed entirely with guns, but many of them carried the primitive bows and arrows, using the latter with deadly effect.

After the supposed destruction of his crop by the summer flood. Colonel Donelson had contemplated a removal to one of the forts in Kentucky, where he had relatives, and where food was more abundant. Later on the prospect of obtaining corn had caused him to delay, but now that this prospect was gone he made ready and began the journey at once, arriving with his family in due time at Davis' Station.

Mansker's fort was now broken up for the winter, Mansker and his wife going to Eaton's. Others who were able to secure horses, among them being James McCain, followed the Donelson party to Kentucky.

That brave Irishman, Hugh Rogan, than whom none played a more heroic part in the early settlement of Middle Tennessee, carried William Neely's widow and her family to a place of safety in Kentucky, after which he returned to share the dangers of his comrades on the Cumberland. Rogan had left his native land some years before, coming to seek his fortune in America. He tarried for a while in Virginia, but was among the first of the settlers to cross the mountains and seek a home in the far famed hunting ground. After coming to Middle Tennessee he was led to believe, through the false representation of a supposed friend, that his wife, whom he left in Ireland, had married the second time, thinking her husband dead. He remained under this impression until after the close of the Indian wars. Learning then the falsity of the report, he went at once to Ireland and there, being happily reunited with his family, brought them to his home in Sumner County. He died many years ago. His remains were buried and now rest in the old Baskerville burying ground near Shiloh Church, in the Tenth District. During the summer of 1780, Robert Gilkie sickened and died at the Bluff, this being the first natural death to occur in the settlement.

Shortly thereafter Philip Conrad was killed by a falling tree near what is now the corner of Cherry and Demonbreun streets, in Nashville.

The first white child born in the Cumberland Settlement was Chesed Donelson, son of Capt. John Donelson Jr., and wife, Mary Purnell. His birth took place in one of the ''half-camps" at Clover Bottom on June 22, 1780. He died while yet young.

A little later in the same year John Saunders was born at Mansker's Station. He grew to manhood and afterwards became Sheriff of Montgomery County. Anna Wells, whose birth also occurred this year, was the first girl born in the settlement.

Because of the scanty supply of food, lack of ammunition and danger from the savages, many left the colony during the fall, going to the several settlements in Illinois and Kentucky. By the first of December only about a hundred and thirty remained. These were indeed dark days for the pioneers, but among the latter were many brave spirits, men and women, who resolved to stay at their posts regardless of the cost. They believed and so expressed the belief that their newly adopted land, so rich in resources and fertile of soil, would in the future become a center of civilization and a seat of learning. In this they were not mistaken. During these trying times the intrepid spirit and unselfish example of Col. James Robertson did much to prevent the breaking up of the settlement. Despite his own privations and personal bereavements, he looked always with the, eye of an optimist to the future, believing in and advising others of the better times yet to come. When the supply of fresh meat, their only food, became scarce, mighty hunters under the leadership of Spencer, Rains, Jacob Castleman and others, braved all dangers and made long excursions into the woods, always returning ladened with an abundance and to spare. In one winter John Rains is said to have killed thirty-two bears in the Harpeth Knobs, seven miles south of the Bluff, and not far from the present location of Glendale Park.

A party of these hunters went in canoes up the Caney Fork River, and in the course of a five days' hunt throughout the region thereabouts killed a hundred and five bears, seventy-five buffalo and eighty-seven deer. After all we little wonder that the right to possess such a land should make it for fourteen years the bloody battleground of pioneer and Indian.

The first wedding in the colony took place at the Bluff during the summer of 1780. It was the marriage of our brave Indian fighter, Capt. James Leiper, and the young lady who thus became his wife. No minister had yet come to the settlement and a question arose as to whether or not any one was authorized to perform the marriage ceremony. Colonel Robertson, who was Chief Justice of the court, sent out to the other Judges a hurry call for a consultation. It was decided by this court that either of its members, by virtue of his office, was empowered to exercise such a function. This decision was probably more "far-reaching" than any yet handed down by the Colonial Judiciary. It constitutes the first "reported case" in the annals of Tennessee jurisprudence. Because of his official position Colonel Robertson was accorded the honor of performing this the first ceremony, which he is reputed to have done with his usual grace of manner.

In the fall other weddings occurred as follows: Edward Swanson to Mrs. Corwin; James Freeland, one of the founders of Freeland's Station, to Mrs. Maxwell; John Tucker to Jennie Herod, and Cornelius Riddle to Jane Mulherrin. The ceremony in each of these instances was performed by James Shaw, one of the Judges. Tradition has brought down to us some details of the festivities attending the Riddle-Mulherrin nuptials.

It seems these young people were unusually popular in colonial society and their friends were anxious that their marriage should be made more than an ordinary event. As the colony was yet in its infancy there were no silks, broadcloths or other finery in which the bride and groom might array themselves, neither was there piano, organ or other instrument on which to play the wedding march. Of more consequence, however, than either of these was the lack of both flour and meal from which to make the wedding cake, and none was to be had at any of the neighboring stations. But in those days large difficulties were quickly overcome. Accordingly two of the settlers were mounted on horses and sent post-haste to Danville, Ky., then the metropolis of the western settlement, for a supply of corn. Three or four days later they returned with a bushel each of this highly prized cereal, which was speedily ground into meal. From this was made the first ''bride's cake" in Middle Tennessee.

Early History of Middle Tennessee

Early History of Middle Tennessee, BY Edward Albright, Copyright, 1908, Brandon Printing Company, Nashville, Tennessee, 1909

 

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